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Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Health and Bone-related Parameters in HIV-infected Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

      Highlights

      • Bone health is decreased in individuals with HIV infection.
      • Vitamin D intake may have beneficial effects on skeletal outcomes in HIV patients.
      • Vitamin D supplementation can improve serum 25 (OH) vitamin D in HIV patients.

      Abstract

      Purpose

      There is growing evidence that bone health is decreased in individuals with HIV infection. Vitamin D deficiency is also highly prevalent among HIV-infected patients. The literature was systematically reviewed to determine whether bone health and bone-related parameters may improve with vitamin D supplementation in HIV-infected individuals.

      Methods

      Four databases were systematically searched for randomized clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation in HIV infection, published from January 1990 to September 2021. No language or publication restrictions were applied. Standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% CIs are reported. A random-effects model was used to perform meta-analysis.

      Findings

      Ten studies met the inclusion criteria (N = 733 participants at study completion). The mean ages of the patients in the included trials ranged from 10 to 49 years. The meta-analysis indicated that with vitamin D supplementation, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) level was significantly increased (SMD, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.70; I2 = 94.4%), but there were no significant effects on levels of serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-[OH]2D) (SMD, 0.29; 95% CI, –0.07 to 0.64; I2 = 67.4%), total bone mineral density (SMD, 0.07; 95% CI, –0.23 to 0.37; I2 = 00.0%), spine bone mineral density (SMD, 0.15; 95% CI, –0.19 to 0.49; I2 = 17.3%), and parathyroid hormone level (SMD, –0.18; 95% CI, –0.37 to 0.02; I2 = 1.2%) in HIV-infected patients.

      Implications

      This study showed that vitamin D supplementation can improve serum 25(OH)D in HIV-infected patients. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on other bone health–related parameters such as bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone in HIV-infected patients need to be further investigated in larger-scale, well-designed randomized, controlled trials.

      Graphical abstract

      Key words

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