Original Research| Volume 43, ISSUE 9, e264-e273, September 2021

Effects of Food on the Pharmacokinetic Properties and Mass Balance of Henagliflozin in Healthy Male Volunteers



      Henagliflozin is a highly selective and effective sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitor developed for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to investigate the effects of meal intake on the pharmacokinetic properties of henagliflozin, and to understand the excretion pathways of henagliflozin in humans.


      In this Phase I, randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period crossover study, 12 healthy male Chinese volunteers were randomized to receive either henagliflozin 10 mg in the fasted condition followed by henagliflozin 10 mg in the fed condition, or the reverse schedule, with the two administrations separated by a washout period of at least 7 days. Samples of blood, urine, and feces were collected and analyzed for the investigation of the pharmacokinetic profile and excretion pathways in the fasted and fed conditions. Any adverse events that occurred throughout the study were recorded for tolerability assessment.


      After the administration of a single oral dose of henagliflozin, mean (SD) plasma AUC0–∞ and Cmax were 1200 (274) h · ng/mL and 179 (48.8) ng/mL, respectively, in the fasted state and were decreased to 971 (245) h · ng/mL and 115 (34.2) ng/mL in the fed state. The fed/fasted ratios (90% CIs) of the geometric mean values of Cmax, AUC0–t, and AUC0–∞ were 64% (54%–76%), 80% (76%–85%), and 80% (76%–85%), respectively. The median (range) Tmax was prolonged from 1.5 (1–3) hours in the fasted condition to 2 (1.5–6) hours in the fed condition. Mass-balance testing revealed that henagliflozin was eliminated primarily as the parent drug in feces and as glucuronide metabolites in urine. In the fasted state, the cumulative excretion percentages of the parent drug and its metabolites to dose in feces and urine were 40.6% and 33.9%, respectively. The values in the fed condition were changed to 50.4% and 25.5%, respectively. These findings suggest that postprandial administration decreases the absorption rate and the extent of henagliflozin exposure in humans, but has no effect on the metabolism or elimination of the drug.


      In the present study, the consumption of a high-fat meal prior to henagliflozin administration was associated with reductions in AUC0–∞ and Cmax of 19.4% and 36.4%, respectively. However, based on the analysis of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic findings on henagliflozin, this slight change may not have clinical significance. Mass balance of henagliflozin in humans was achieved with ∼75% of the administered dose recovered in excretions within 4 days after administration whether in the fasted or fed state. These findings suggest that henagliflozin tablets can be administered with or without food.

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