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A Phase I Study to Show the Relative Bioavailability and Bioequivalence of Fixed-Dose Combinations of Ambrisentan and Tadalafil in Healthy Subjects

      ABSTRACT

      Purpose

      Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease that typically causes shortness of breath and exercise intolerance. Combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil has proven to be more effective at preventing clinical failure events in patients with PAH than either drug alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of an ambrisentan/tadalafil fixed-dose combination (FDC) compared with co-administration of the 2 monotherapies.

      Methods

      This 3-part, randomized, single-dose, open-label crossover study was conducted in healthy volunteers. The first part of the study consisted of a 5-way crossover that compared the relative bioavailability of 4 FDC formulations (10-mg ambrisentan + 40-mg tadalafil) with co-administered reference monotherapies. One formulation was selected and its relative bioavailability was assessed when produced in 3 different granulation sizes during the second part of the study. In the third part of the study, the bioequivalence of the candidate FDC with the reference monotherapies was evaluated for the 10-mg/40-mg dose strength, in addition to 2 other dose strengths (5 mg/20 mg and 5 mg/40 mg). For all parts of the study, blood samples were taken at regular intervals after each dose, ambrisentan and tadalafil concentrations determined, and pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters (Cmax, AUC0–∞, and AUC0–t) obtained. Test/reference ratios of the geometric means of PK parameters were used to evaluate bioequivalence. Safety and tolerability were assessed by recording adverse events and monitoring vital signs, ECGs, and clinical laboratory data.

      Findings

      Of the 174 subjects screened for eligibility, 112 were allocated to a randomized treatment sequence across all study parts, and 100 completed their full assigned treatments. All 4 FDC formulations tested during part 1 of the study yielded PK parameters similar those of the reference treatments. In part 2, granulation size was found to not affect the relative bioavailability of the selected formulation. In part 3, the selected FDC was found to be bioequivalent to co-administration of the monotherapies in both the fasted and fed states. The FDC was also found to be bioequivalent to the reference treatments at the 2 additional dose strengths. All but one of the adverse events was mild to moderate in intensity, and no serious adverse events were reported.

      Implications

      An ambrisentan/tadalafil FDC was bioequivalent to concurrently administered monotherapies and therefore represents a viable alternative treatment to co-administration. Use of an FDC is likely to be associated with reduced costs and improved patient compliance. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02688387.

      Key Words

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