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Materials to Clinical Devices: Technologies for Remotely Triggered Drug Delivery

  • Brian P. Timko
    Affiliations
    Laboratory for Biomaterials and Drug Delivery, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

    Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts
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  • Daniel S. Kohane
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: Daniel S. Kohane, MD, PhD, Laboratory for Biomaterials and Drug Delivery, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115
    Affiliations
    Laboratory for Biomaterials and Drug Delivery, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Background

      Technologies in which a remote trigger is used to release drug from an implanted or injected device could enable on-demand release profiles that enhance therapeutic effectiveness or reduce systemic toxicity. A number of new materials have been developed that exhibit sensitivity to light, ultrasound, or electrical or magnetic fields. Delivery systems that incorporate these materials might be triggered externally by the patient, parent or physician to provide flexible control of dose magnitude and timing.

      Objectives

      To review injectable or implantable systems that are candidates for translation to the clinic, or ones that have already undergone clinical trials. Also considered are applicability in pediatrics and prospects for the future of drug delivery systems.

      Methods

      We performed literature searches of the PubMed and Science Citation Index databases for articles in English that reported triggerable drug delivery devices, and for articles reporting related materials and concepts.

      Results

      Approaches to remotely-triggered systems that have clinical potential were identified. Ideally, these systems have been engineered to exhibit controlled on-state release kinetics, low baseline leak rates, and reproducible dosing across multiple cycles.

      Conclusions

      Advances in remotely-triggered drug delivery have been brought about by the convergence of numerous scientific and engineering disciplines, and this convergence is likely to play an important part in the current trend to develop systems that provide more than one therapeutic modality. Preclinical systems must be carefully assessed for biocompatibility, and engineered to ensure pharmacokinetics within the therapeutic window. Future drug delivery systems may incorporate additional modalities, such as closed-loop sensing or onboard power generation, enabling more sophisticated drug delivery regimens.

      Key words

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      • Correction
        Clinical TherapeuticsVol. 34Issue 12
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          In the article by B. Timko and D.S. Kohane, titled “Materials to Clinical Devices: Technologies for Remotely Triggered Drug Delivery” (Clin Ther. 2012;34:S25–S35), reprinted information in Figure 4 read “Reprinted from Expert Opin Pharmacother. 10(2), Poon RT, Borys N. Lyso-thermosensitive liposomal doxorubicin: a novel approach to enhance efficacy of thermal ablation of liver cancer, 333–343.42 Copyright 2009, with permission from Elsevier.” The section should have read “Reprinted from Biomaterials.
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