Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)is associated with a high degree of impairment
in social skills, family interaction, and academic functioning. Comorbid ODD is reportedly
present in 40% to 70% of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity
The goal of this study was to assess theefficacy and safety of mixed amphetamine salts
extended release (MAS XR) for the treatment of ODD in children and adolescents aged
6 to 17 years.
This was a 4-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled,
forced-dose-escalation study. Patients were randomized to receive active treatment
with MAS XR 10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/d or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was
the ODD subscale of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham-IV (SNAP-IV) parent rating. Primary
safety measures included adverse events recorded at each visit and for 30 days after
study drug discontinuation, and changes in vital signs, 12-lead electrocardiographic
(ECG) findings, laboratory tests and physical examinations, and body weight. A post
hoc efficacy reanalysis was completed based on the results for the per-protocol population.
For this analysis, patients were divided into high and low baseline severity categories
according to the dichotomized baseline ODD parent or teacher score or dichotomized
baseline ADHD parent or teacher score (high defined as scores at the median or greater
and low defined as scores less than the median).
A total of 308 children and adolescents (age range, 6–17 years; 213 males, 95 females)
were randomized to receive active treatment with MAS XR 10 mg/d (n = 60) 20 mg/d (n
= 58), 30 mg/d (n = 69), or 40 mg/d (n = 61) or placebo (n = 60). Of the 308 study
patients, 244 (79.2%) had comorbid ADHD. A significant change from baseline in the
ODD symptoms measured with the SNAP-IV parent rating subscale was found for the MAS
XR 30-mg/d (-0.52; P < 0.001) and 40-mg/d (−0.56; P = 0.002) groups in the per-protocol analysis and for the MAS XR 30-mg/d group in
the intent-to-treat analysis (−0.42; P < 0.005). Throughout the study, MAS XR was well tolerated in these children and adolescents
with ODD, and most adverse events were mild to moderate in intensity. The most frequently
reported adverse events occurring in MAS XR-treated patients were anorexia/decreased
appetite (25.3%), insomnia (19.5%), headache (18.5%), and abdominal pain (10.7%).
Statistically, but not clinically, significant decreases in body weight were seen
with MAS XR (range, -1.1 to −3.5 lb; P < 0.001 vs placebo). Changes in laboratory values, ECG measurements, and physical
and other vital signs were also not clinically significant. The post hoc reanalysis
was based on the per-protocol population (n = 229). An assessment of the high baseline
symptom severity subgroups showed a good response to MAS XR treatment for the SNAP-IV
parent and teacher rating scales (both, P < 0.05).
This study found that higher doses ofMAS XR (30 and 40 mg) were effective and well
tolerated in the management of ODD in these schoolaged children and adolescents in
the presence or absence of ADHD.