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The proton-pump inhibitors: Similarities and differences

  • John Horn
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: John Horn, PharmD, Department of Pharmacy, University of Washington School of Pharmacy, Health Sciences Building, Room T-341, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98185.
    Affiliations
    University of Washington School of Pharmacy, Seattle, Washington, USA
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      Abstract

      Objective

      This paper examines the clinical pharmacology of the proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) and briefly reviews some comparative studies of these agents.

      Background

      PPIs have emerged as the treatment of choice for acidrelated diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and peptic ulcer disease. Although these drugs—omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole—share a common structure (all are substituted benzimidazoles) and mode of action (inhibition of H+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase [ATPase]), each differs somewhat in its clinical pharmacology.

      Results

      In comparative clinical trials found in MEDLINE®, PPIs administered once daily produced endoscopic evidence of healing in >90% of patients with duodenal ulcer after 4 weeks of treatment, in >90% of those with gastric ulcer after 6 weeks of treatment, and in >90% of those with ulcerative or erosive GERD after 8 weeks of treatment. Maintenance therapy with daily doses of a PPI has been shown to be an effective means of preventing GERD relapse. PPIs also inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori, now recognized as an important factor in peptic ulcer disease, and, when administered in combination with antibiotics, provide the best treatment for eradication of the bacterium. Rabeprazole has a more rapid onset of H+,K+-ATPase inhibition than the other PPIs and, compared with omeprazole, a greater effect on intragastric pH after the first dose. Omeprazole and lansoprazole have a greater potential for drugdrug interactions than do pantoprazole and rabeprazole.

      Conclusion

      Although the individual PPIs have similar efficacy in many cases, differences between them should be considered when choosing a treatment regimen.

      Key words

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