Research Article| Volume 17, ISSUE 2, P320-329, March 1995

The ratio of AIDS to non-AIDS medicaid medical costs from 1992 to 2000

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Our research objective was to calculate and forecast the monthly increase in medical and prescription costs for Medicaid patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and compare these values with costs for non-AIDS patients. A retrospective analysis of AIDS patients and a control group of Georgia Medicaid beneficiaries was conducted between January 1, 1988, and December 31, 1991. AIDS patients were defined using the Keyes algorithm of combinations of International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The AIDS patient group was matched demographically to a group of non-AIDS patients. Data were adjusted to account for eligibility status, and the ratio of AIDS costs to non-AIDS costs was modeled with an econometric time series procedure. A total of 1966 AIDS patients were identified from 900,000 Medicaid recipients in the study period; 58.0% were male and 59.8% were black. Age was bimodal at ≤1 year and 33 years. The best fit for the medical cost ratios produced a significant regression coefficient of .37. The initial ratio of AIDS to non-AIDS forecast was 4.25 in January 1992. The January 2000 forecast of this ratio increased to 42.56. This increase equates to an additional $8510.19 per AIDS patient-month for January 2000 in 1991 dollars. The outpatient prescription ratio for AIDS versus non-AIDS patients was not predictable. However, the greatest observed discrepancies were attributed to the expense for antihemophilia products. Overall, the most important finding was the accelerating medical costs or treating AIDS patients compared with costs for treating non-AIDS patients. These results may, in part, reflect additional costs for treating intravenous drug users and pediatric AIDS patients.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Clinical Therapeutics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Hellinger FJ
        Forecasting the personal medical care costs of AIDS from 1988 through 1991.
        Public Health Rep. 1988; 103: 309-319
        • Hellinger FJ
        Forecasting the medical care costs of the HIV epidemic: 1991–1994.
        Inquiry. 1991; 28: 213-225
        • Hellinger FJ
        Forecasts of the costs of medical care for persons with HIV: 1992–1995.
        Inquiry. 1992; 29: 356-365
        • Hellinger FJ
        The lifetime cost of treating a person with HIV.
        JAMA. 1993; 270: 474-478
      1. Skyrocketing Health Inflation 1980–1993–2000. Families USA Foundation, Washington, DC1993: 10
        • Alecxih LMN
        • Kennell DL
        • Rutkin A
        State-level estimates of health care expenditures. Lewin-VHI, Inc, Fairfax Va1993
        • Buchanan RF
        • Kircher FG
        Medicaid policy for AIDS-related hospital care.
        Health Care Financ Rev. 1994; 15: 33-41
        • Andrulis DP
        • Weslowski VB
        • Hintz E
        • Spolarich AW
        Comparisons of hospital care for patients with AIDS and other HIV-related conditions.
        JAMA. 1992; 267: 2842-2846
        • Luce JM
        • Scitovsky AA
        Costs and outcome of intensive care for patients with AIDS, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and respiratory failure.
        Clin Res. 1992; 40 (Abstract): 593A
        • Bozzette SA
        • Parker R
        • Hay J
        A cost analysis of approved antiretroviral strategies in persons with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease and zidovudine intolerance.
        J Acquired Immune Defic Syndr. 1994; 7: 355-362
        • Sawada M
        • Suzumura A
        • Marunouchi T
        Down regulation of CD4 expression in cultured Microglia by immunosuppressants and lipopolysaccharide.
        Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992; 189: 869-876
      2. 1994 Red Book. Medical Economics Data Production Company, Montvale, NJ1994: 359
        • Kass NE
        • Faden RR
        • For R
        • Dudley J
        Loss of private health insurance among homosexual men with AIDS.
        Inquiry. 1991; 28: 249-254
        • Green J
        • Amo PS
        The “medicaidization” of AIDS: Trends in the financing of HIV-related medical care.
        JAMA. 1991; 264: 1261-1266
        • Turner BJ
        • Markson LE
        • Houchens R
        • Fanning T
        Research on outcomes of care using a Medicaid AIDS data base: Overcoming the curses of imperfect data.
        in: Grady ML Schwartz HA Medical Effectiveness Research Data Method. US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC1992: 37-52
        • Rosenblum L
        • Buehler JW
        • Morgan MW
        • et al.
        The completeness of AIDS case reporting, 1988: A multi-site collaborative surveillance project.
        Am J Public Health. 1992; 82: 1495-1499
        • Keyes M
        • Andrews R
        • Mason M
        A methodology for building an AIDS research file using Medicaid claims and administrative data bases.
        J Acquired Immune Defic Syndr. 1991; 4: 1015-1023
      3. SAS/ETS User's Guide. SAS Institute, Inc, Cary, NC1990 (Version 6)
        • Green TA
        • Karon JM
        • Nwanyanwy OC
        Changes in AIDS incidence trends in the United States.
        J Acquired Immune Defic Syndr. 1992; 5: 547-555
        • Serge GR
        • Hertz T
        • Stone VE
        • Epstein AM
        The effects of intravenous drug use and gender on the cost of hospitalization for patients with AIDS.
        J Acquired Immune Defic Syndr. 1993; 6: 831-839
        • Rosenberg PS
        • Gail MH
        Estimating HIV prevalence and projecting AIDS incidence in the United States: A model that accounts for therapy and changes in the surveillance definition of AIDS.
        Stat Med. 1993; 11: 1633-1655